Stay connected with USB 3.1 - The next generation standard camera interface

In previous generations USB was only a data interface, capable of supporting limited power for a device. With the USB 3.1 specification the USB implementers forum (USB-IF) has reworked also other sections.
The most significant improvement is the new USB Type-C connector which put an end to the plug confusion and should become the new standard. But what are the innovations of USB 3.1 and what are the benefits for USB as a camera interface?